Integrating Blue-Green-Grey Open Space Network: Sustainable Urban Design Approach for Climate Change Resilience
To reduce the vulnerable impacts of climate change, it is now important to identify a climate-change adaptation or resilience strategy that would reduce the hazard risk in urban areas from possible climate change-induced flooding, temperature rise, sea-level rise, landslides, and earthquakes. In an urban area, open spaces can build the risk management capacity of urban areas. Based on their multi-functional capability, different types of open spaces are used for different functions, including spaces for recreation and relaxation, agriculture and gardening, ventilation and cooling, water absorption and groundwater recharge, and stationary or traffic and transportation for the public. It has been observed that traditionally, a network of Green-Blue-Grey (GBG) spaces provided the necessary safety net to hazards. GBG is ecosystem-based hybrid approaches that take advantage of ecosystem functions and the efficacy of more engineered systems to deliver the adaptive measure of urban design. Through case studies and literature review, this paper attempts to identify the vulnerabilities of possible climate change-induced hazards and identify types and patterns of distribution of open spaces to mitigate the risk and explore their role in making climate change resilient urban areas besides their traditional use. The literature of global scenario also shows that open space networking in an urban area can create a cost-effective climate-change adaptation/resilience approach for urban design. This paper highlights a hybrid approach that integrates the green, blue, and grey open space as an effective, sustainable strategy for climate change adaptation and hazard risk reduction approaches in the urban context.